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browser.py

##############################################################################
#
# Copyright (c) 2001, 2002 Zope Corporation and Contributors.
# All Rights Reserved.
#
# This software is subject to the provisions of the Zope Public License,
# Version 2.1 (ZPL).  A copy of the ZPL should accompany this distribution.
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND ANY AND ALL EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
# WARRANTIES ARE DISCLAIMED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
# WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTABILITY, AGAINST INFRINGEMENT, AND FITNESS
# FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
#
##############################################################################
"""Browser-specific Publisher classes

Here we define the specific 'BrowserRequest' and 'BrowserResponse' class. The
big improvement of the 'BrowserRequest' to 'HTTPRequest' is that is can handle
HTML form data and convert them into a Python-native format. Even file data is
packaged into a nice, Python-friendly 'FileUpload' object.

$Id: browser.py 39629 2005-10-26 08:10:38Z hdima $
"""
import re
from types import ListType, TupleType, StringType, StringTypes
from cgi import FieldStorage, escape

from zope.interface import implements, directlyProvides
from zope.i18n.interfaces import IUserPreferredLanguages
from zope.i18n.interfaces import IUserPreferredCharsets
from zope.publisher.interfaces.browser import IBrowserRequest
from zope.publisher.interfaces.browser import IDefaultBrowserLayer
from zope.publisher.interfaces.browser import IBrowserApplicationRequest

from zope.publisher import contenttype
from zope.publisher.http import HTTPRequest, HTTPResponse
from zope.publisher.base import BaseRequest

__ArrayTypes = (ListType, TupleType)

start_of_header_search=re.compile('(<head[^>]*>)', re.I).search
base_re_search=re.compile('(<base.*?>)',re.I).search
isRelative = re.compile("[-_.!~*a-zA-z0-9'()@&=+$,]+(/|$)").match
newlines = re.compile('\r\n|\n\r|\r')


def is_text_html(content_type):
    return content_type.startswith('text/html')

# Flag Constants
SEQUENCE = 1
DEFAULT = 2
RECORD = 4
RECORDS = 8
REC = RECORD | RECORDS
CONVERTED = 32
DEFAULTABLE_METHODS = 'GET', 'POST', 'HEAD'


def field2string(v):
    if hasattr(v, 'read'):
        return v.read()
    return str(v)

def field2text(v, nl=newlines):
    return nl.sub("\n", field2string(v))

def field2required(v):
    v = field2string(v)
    if not v.strip():
        raise ValueError('No input for required field<p>')
    return v

def field2int(v):
    if isinstance(v, __ArrayTypes):
        return map(field2int, v)
    v = field2string(v)
    if not v:
        raise ValueError('Empty entry when <strong>integer</strong> expected')
    try:
        return int(v)
    except ValueError:
        raise ValueError("An integer was expected in the value '%s'" % v)

def field2float(v):
    if isinstance(v, __ArrayTypes):
        return map(field2float, v)
    v = field2string(v)
    if not v:
        raise ValueError(
            'Empty entry when <strong>floating-point number</strong> expected')
    try:
        return float(v)
    except ValueError:
        raise ValueError(
                "A floating-point number was expected in the value '%s'" % v)

def field2long(v):
    if isinstance(v, __ArrayTypes):
        return map(field2long, v)
    v = field2string(v)

    # handle trailing 'L' if present.
    if v and v[-1].upper() == 'L':
        v = v[:-1]
    if not v:
        raise ValueError('Empty entry when <strong>integer</strong> expected')
    try:
        return long(v)
    except ValueError:
        raise ValueError("A long integer was expected in the value '%s'" % v)

def field2tokens(v):
    return field2string(v).split()

def field2lines(v):
    if isinstance(v, __ArrayTypes):
        return [str(item) for item in v]
    return field2text(v).splitlines()

def field2boolean(v):
    return bool(v)

type_converters = {
    'float':    field2float,
    'int':      field2int,
    'long':     field2long,
    'string':   field2string,
    'required': field2required,
    'tokens':   field2tokens,
    'lines':    field2lines,
    'text':     field2text,
    'boolean':  field2boolean,
    }

get_converter = type_converters.get

def registerTypeConverter(field_type, converter, replace=False):
    """Add a custom type converter to the registry.

    o If 'replace' is not true, raise a KeyError if a converter is
      already registered for 'field_type'.
    """
    existing = type_converters.get(field_type)

    if existing is not None and not replace:
        raise KeyError('Existing converter for field_type: %s' % field_type)

    type_converters[field_type] = converter


isCGI_NAME = {
    # These fields are placed in request.environ instead of request.form.
    'SERVER_SOFTWARE' : 1,
    'SERVER_NAME' : 1,
    'GATEWAY_INTERFACE' : 1,
    'SERVER_PROTOCOL' : 1,
    'SERVER_PORT' : 1,
    'REQUEST_METHOD' : 1,
    'PATH_INFO' : 1,
    'PATH_TRANSLATED' : 1,
    'SCRIPT_NAME' : 1,
    'QUERY_STRING' : 1,
    'REMOTE_HOST' : 1,
    'REMOTE_ADDR' : 1,
    'AUTH_TYPE' : 1,
    'REMOTE_USER' : 1,
    'REMOTE_IDENT' : 1,
    'CONTENT_TYPE' : 1,
    'CONTENT_LENGTH' : 1,
    'SERVER_URL': 1,
    }.has_key

hide_key={
    'HTTP_AUTHORIZATION':1,
    'HTTP_CGI_AUTHORIZATION': 1,
    }.has_key


class Record(object):

    def __getattr__(self, key, default=None):
        if key in ('get', 'keys', 'items', 'values', 'copy',
                   'has_key', '__contains__'):
            return getattr(self.__dict__, key)
        raise AttributeError(key)

    def __getitem__(self, key):
        return self.__dict__[key]

    def __str__(self):
        L1 = self.__dict__.items()
        L1.sort()
        return ", ".join(["%s: %s" % item for item in L1])

    def __repr__(self):
        L1 = self.__dict__.items()
        L1.sort()
        return ', '.join(["%s: %s" % (key, repr(value)) for key, value in L1])


class BrowserRequest(HTTPRequest):
    implements(IBrowserRequest, IBrowserApplicationRequest)

    __slots__ = (
        '__provides__', # Allow request to directly provide interfaces
        'form', # Form data
        'charsets', # helper attribute
        '__meth',
        '__tuple_items',
        '__defaults',
        '__annotations__',
        )

    # Set this to True in a subclass to redirect GET requests when the
    # effective and actual URLs differ.
    use_redirect = False

    def __init__(self, body_instream, environ, response=None):
        self.form = {}
        self.charsets = None
        super(BrowserRequest, self).__init__(body_instream, environ, response)


    def _createResponse(self):
        return BrowserResponse()

    def _decode(self, text):
        """Try to decode the text using one of the available charsets."""
        if self.charsets is None:
            envadapter = IUserPreferredCharsets(self)
            self.charsets = envadapter.getPreferredCharsets() or ['utf-8']
        for charset in self.charsets:
            try:
                text = unicode(text, charset)
                break
            except UnicodeError:
                pass
        return text

    def processInputs(self):
        'See IPublisherRequest'

        if self.method != 'GET':
            # Process self.form if not a GET request.
            fp = self._body_instream
        else:
            fp = None

        # If 'QUERY_STRING' is not present in self._environ
        # FieldStorage will try to get it from sys.argv[1]
        # which is not what we need.
        if 'QUERY_STRING' not in self._environ:
            self._environ['QUERY_STRING'] = ''

        fs = FieldStorage(fp=fp, environ=self._environ, keep_blank_values=1)

        fslist = getattr(fs, 'list', None)
        if fslist is not None:
            self.__meth = None
            self.__tuple_items = {}
            self.__defaults = {}

            # process all entries in the field storage (form)
            for item in fslist:
                self.__processItem(item)

            if self.__defaults:
                self.__insertDefaults()

            if self.__tuple_items:
                self.__convertToTuples()

            if self.__meth:
                self.setPathSuffix((self.__meth,))

    _typeFormat = re.compile('([a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_]+|\\.[xy])$')

    def __processItem(self, item):
        """Process item in the field storage."""

        # Check whether this field is a file upload object
        # Note: A field exists for files, even if no filename was
        # passed in and no data was uploaded. Therefore we can only
        # tell by the empty filename that no upload was made.
        key = item.name
        if (hasattr(item, 'file') and hasattr(item, 'filename')
            and hasattr(item,'headers')):
            if (item.file and
                (item.filename is not None and item.filename != ''
                 # RFC 1867 says that all fields get a content-type.
                 # or 'content-type' in map(lower, item.headers.keys())
                 )):
                item = FileUpload(item)
            else:
                item = item.value

        flags = 0
        converter = None

        # Loop through the different types and set
        # the appropriate flags
        # Syntax: var_name:type_name

        # We'll search from the back to the front.
        # We'll do the search in two steps.  First, we'll
        # do a string search, and then we'll check it with
        # a re search.

        while key:
            pos = key.rfind(":")
            if pos < 0:
                break
            match = self._typeFormat.match(key, pos + 1)
            if match is None:
                break

            key, type_name = key[:pos], key[pos + 1:]

            # find the right type converter
            c = get_converter(type_name, None)

            if c is not None:
                converter = c
                flags |= CONVERTED
            elif type_name == 'list':
                flags |= SEQUENCE
            elif type_name == 'tuple':
                self.__tuple_items[key] = 1
                flags |= SEQUENCE
            elif (type_name == 'method' or type_name == 'action'):
                if key:
                    self.__meth = key
                else:
                    self.__meth = item
            elif (type_name == 'default_method'
                    or type_name == 'default_action') and not self.__meth:
                if key:
                    self.__meth = key
                else:
                    self.__meth = item
            elif type_name == 'default':
                flags |= DEFAULT
            elif type_name == 'record':
                flags |= RECORD
            elif type_name == 'records':
                flags |= RECORDS
            elif type_name == 'ignore_empty' and not item:
                # skip over empty fields
                return

        # Filter out special names from form:
        if not (isCGI_NAME(key) or key.startswith('HTTP_')):
            # Make it unicode
            key = self._decode(key)
            if type(item) == StringType:
                item = self._decode(item)

            if flags:
                self.__setItemWithType(key, item, flags, converter)
            else:
                self.__setItemWithoutType(key, item)

    def __setItemWithoutType(self, key, item):
        """Set item value without explicit type."""
        form = self.form
        if key not in form:
            form[key] = item
        else:
            found = form[key]
            if isinstance(found, list):
                found.append(item)
            else:
                form[key] = [found, item]

    def __setItemWithType(self, key, item, flags, converter):
        """Set item value with explicit type."""
        #Split the key and its attribute
        if flags & REC:
            key, attr = self.__splitKey(key)

        # defer conversion
        if flags & CONVERTED:
            try:
                item = converter(item)
            except:
                if item or flags & DEFAULT or key not in self.__defaults:
                    raise
                item = self.__defaults[key]
                if flags & RECORD:
                    item = getattr(item, attr)
                elif flags & RECORDS:
                    item = getattr(item[-1], attr)

        # Determine which dictionary to use
        if flags & DEFAULT:
            form = self.__defaults
        else:
            form = self.form

        # Insert in dictionary
        if key not in form:
            if flags & SEQUENCE:
                item = [item]
            if flags & RECORD:
                r = form[key] = Record()
                setattr(r, attr, item)
            elif flags & RECORDS:
                r = Record()
                setattr(r, attr, item)
                form[key] = [r]
            else:
                form[key] = item
        else:
            r = form[key]
            if flags & RECORD:
                if not flags & SEQUENCE:
                    setattr(r, attr, item)
                else:
                    if not hasattr(r, attr):
                        setattr(r, attr, [item])
                    else:
                        getattr(r, attr).append(item)
            elif flags & RECORDS:
                last = r[-1]
                if not hasattr(last, attr):
                    if flags & SEQUENCE:
                        item = [item]
                    setattr(last, attr, item)
                else:
                    if flags & SEQUENCE:
                        getattr(last, attr).append(item)
                    else:
                        new = Record()
                        setattr(new, attr, item)
                        r.append(new)
            else:
                if isinstance(r, list):
                    r.append(item)
                else:
                    form[key] = [r, item]

    def __splitKey(self, key):
        """Split the key and its attribute."""
        i = key.rfind(".")
        if i >= 0:
            return key[:i], key[i + 1:]
        return key, ""

    def __convertToTuples(self):
        """Convert form values to tuples."""
        form = self.form

        for key in self.__tuple_items:
            if key in form:
                form[key] = tuple(form[key])
            else:
                k, attr = self.__splitKey(key)

                # remove any type_names in the attr
                i = attr.find(":")
                if i >= 0:
                    attr = attr[:i]

                if k in form:
                    item = form[k]
                    if isinstance(item, Record):
                        if hasattr(item, attr):
                            setattr(item, attr, tuple(getattr(item, attr)))
                    else:
                        for v in item:
                            if hasattr(v, attr):
                                setattr(v, attr, tuple(getattr(v, attr)))

    def __insertDefaults(self):
        """Insert defaults into form dictionary."""
        form = self.form

        for keys, values in self.__defaults.iteritems():
            if not keys in form:
                form[keys] = values
            else:
                item = form[keys]
                if isinstance(values, Record):
                    for k, v in values.items():
                        if not hasattr(item, k):
                            setattr(item, k, v)
                elif isinstance(values, list):
                    for val in values:
                        if isinstance(val, Record):
                            for k, v in val.items():
                                for r in item:
                                    if not hasattr(r, k):
                                        setattr(r, k, v)
                        elif not val in item:
                            item.append(val)

    def traverse(self, object):
        'See IPublisherRequest'

        ob = super(BrowserRequest, self).traverse(object)
        method = self.method

        base_needed = 0
        if self._path_suffix:
            # We had a :method variable, so we need to set the base,
            # but we don't look for default documents any more.
            base_needed = 1
            redirect = 0
        elif method in DEFAULTABLE_METHODS:
            # We need to check for default documents
            publication = self.publication

            nsteps = 0
            ob, add_steps = publication.getDefaultTraversal(self, ob)
            while add_steps:
                nsteps += len(add_steps)
                add_steps = list(add_steps)
                add_steps.reverse()
                self.setTraversalStack(add_steps)
                ob = super(BrowserRequest, self).traverse(ob)
                ob, add_steps = publication.getDefaultTraversal(self, ob)

            if nsteps != self._endswithslash:
                base_needed = 1
                redirect = self.use_redirect and method == 'GET'


        if base_needed:
            url = self.getURL()
            response = self.response
            if redirect:
                response.redirect(url)
                return ''
            elif not response.getBase():
                response.setBase(url)

        return ob

    def keys(self):
        'See Interface.Common.Mapping.IEnumerableMapping'
        d = {}
        d.update(self._environ)
        d.update(self._cookies)
        d.update(self.form)
        return d.keys()


    def get(self, key, default=None):
        'See Interface.Common.Mapping.IReadMapping'

        result = self.form.get(key, self)
        if result is not self: return result

        result = self._cookies.get(key, self)
        if result is not self: return result

        result = self._environ.get(key, self)
        if result is not self: return result

        return default


00563 class FileUpload(object):
    '''File upload objects

    File upload objects are used to represent file-uploaded data.

    File upload objects can be used just like files.

    In addition, they have a 'headers' attribute that is a dictionary
    containing the file-upload headers, and a 'filename' attribute
    containing the name of the uploaded file.
    '''

    def __init__(self, aFieldStorage):

        file = aFieldStorage.file
        if hasattr(file, '__methods__'):
            methods = file.__methods__
        else:
            methods = ['close', 'fileno', 'flush', 'isatty',
                'read', 'readline', 'readlines', 'seek',
                'tell', 'truncate', 'write', 'writelines']

        d = self.__dict__
        for m in methods:
            if hasattr(file,m):
                d[m] = getattr(file,m)

        self.headers = aFieldStorage.headers
        self.filename = aFieldStorage.filename

00593 class RedirectingBrowserRequest(BrowserRequest):
    """Browser requests that redirect when the actual and effective URLs differ
    """

    use_redirect = True

00599 class TestRequest(BrowserRequest):
    """Browser request with a constructor convenient for testing
    """

    def __init__(self, body_instream=None, environ=None, form=None,
                 skin=None, outstream=None,
                 **kw):

        _testEnv =  {
            'SERVER_URL':         'http://127.0.0.1',
            'HTTP_HOST':          '127.0.0.1',
            'CONTENT_LENGTH':     '0',
            'GATEWAY_INTERFACE':  'TestFooInterface/1.0',
            }

        if environ is not None:
            # BBB: This is backward-compatibility support for the deprecated
            # output stream.
            try:
                environ.get
            except AttributeError:
                import warnings
                warnings.warn("Can't pass output streams to requests anymore. "
                              "This will go away in Zope 3.4.",
                              DeprecationWarning,
                              2)
                environ, form, skin, outstream = form, skin, outstream, environ

            _testEnv.update(environ)

        if kw:
            _testEnv.update(kw)
        if body_instream is None:
            from StringIO import StringIO
            body_instream = StringIO('')

        super(TestRequest, self).__init__(body_instream, _testEnv)
        if form:
            self.form.update(form)

        # Setup locale object
        langs = BrowserLanguages(self).getPreferredLanguages()
        from zope.i18n.locales import locales
        if not langs or langs[0] == '':
            self._locale = locales.getLocale(None, None, None)
        else:
            parts = (langs[0].split('-') + [None, None])[:3]
            self._locale = locales.getLocale(*parts)

        if skin is not None:
            directlyProvides(self, skin)
        else:
            directlyProvides(self, IDefaultBrowserLayer)

        # BBB: Goes away in 3.4.
        self.response.outstream = outstream

    # BBB: Remove in 3.4. The super version will be ok.
    def _createResponse(self):
        return BBBResponse()



00662 class BrowserResponse(HTTPResponse):
    """Browser response
    """

    __slots__ = (
        '_base', # The base href
        )

    def _implicitResult(self, body):
        content_type = self.getHeader('content-type')
        if content_type is None:
            if isHTML(body):
                content_type = 'text/html'
            else:
                content_type = 'text/plain'
            self.setHeader('x-content-type-warning', 'guessed from content')
            self.setHeader('content-type', content_type)

        body, headers = super(BrowserResponse, self)._implicitResult(body)
        body = self.__insertBase(body)
        return body, headers


    def __insertBase(self, body):
        # Only insert a base tag if content appears to be html.
        content_type = self.getHeader('content-type', '')
        if content_type and not is_text_html(content_type):
            return body

        if self.getBase():
            if body:
                match = start_of_header_search(body)
                if match is not None:
                    index = match.start(0) + len(match.group(0))
                    ibase = base_re_search(body)
                    if ibase is None:
                        # Make sure the base URL is not a unicode string.
                        base = str(self.getBase())
                        body = ('%s\n<base href="%s" />\n%s' %
                                (body[:index], base, body[index:]))
        return body

    def getBase(self):
        return getattr(self, '_base', '')

    def setBase(self, base):
        self._base = base

    def redirect(self, location, status=None):
        base = getattr(self, '_base', '')
        if base and isRelative(str(location)):
            l = base.rfind('/')
            if l >= 0:
                base = base[:l+1]
            else:
                base += '/'
            location = base + location

        # TODO: HTTP redirects must provide an absolute location, see
        #       http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html#sec14.30
        #       So, what if location is relative and base is unknown?  Uncomment
        #       the following and you'll see that it actually happens.
        #
        # if isRelative(str(location)):
        #     raise AssertionError('Cannot determine absolute location')

        return super(BrowserResponse, self).redirect(location, status)

    def reset(self):
        super(BrowserResponse, self).reset()
        self._base = ''

class BBBResponse(BrowserResponse):

    def write(self, str):
        import warnings
        warnings.warn("write() method does not exist anymore.",
                      DeprecationWarning,
                      2)
        self.outstream.write(str)

    def outputBody(self):
        import warnings
        warnings.warn("Can't pass output streams to requests anymore",
                      DeprecationWarning,
                      2)
        self.outstream.write("Status: %s\r\n" % self.getStatusString())
        headers = self.getHeaders()
        headers.sort()
        self.outstream.write(
            "\r\n".join([("%s: %s" % h) for h in headers])
            + "\r\n\r\n"
            )
        self.outstream.write(''.join(self.getBody()))


def isHTML(str):
     """Try to determine whether str is HTML or not."""
     s = str.lstrip().lower()
     if s.startswith('<!doctype html'):
         return True
     if s.startswith('<html') and (s[5:6] in ' >'):
         return True
     if s.startswith('<!--'):
         idx = s.find('<html')
         return idx > 0 and (s[idx+5:idx+6] in ' >')
     else:
         return False

def normalize_lang(lang):
    lang = lang.strip().lower()
    lang = lang.replace('_', '-')
    lang = lang.replace(' ', '')
    return lang

class BrowserLanguages(object):

    implements(IUserPreferredLanguages)

    def __init__(self, request):
        self.request = request

    def getPreferredLanguages(self):
        '''See interface IUserPreferredLanguages'''
        accept_langs = self.request.get('HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE', '').split(',')

        # Normalize lang strings
        accept_langs = [normalize_lang(l) for l in accept_langs]
        # Then filter out empty ones
        accept_langs = [l for l in accept_langs if l]

        accepts = []
        for index, lang in enumerate(accept_langs):
            l = lang.split(';', 2)

            # If not supplied, quality defaults to 1...
            quality = 1.0

            if len(l) == 2:
                q = l[1]
                if q.startswith('q='):
                    q = q.split('=', 2)[1]
                    quality = float(q)

            if quality == 1.0:
                # ... but we use 1.9 - 0.001 * position to
                # keep the ordering between all items with
                # 1.0 quality, which may include items with no quality
                # defined, and items with quality defined as 1.
                quality = 1.9 - (0.001 * index)

            accepts.append((quality, l[0]))

        # Filter langs with q=0, which means
        # unwanted lang according to the spec
        # See: http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html#sec14.4
        accepts = [acc for acc in accepts if acc[0]]

        accepts.sort()
        accepts.reverse()

        return [lang for quality, lang in accepts]

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